The History of Yezidis in Iraq

(Yezidis) and in Kurdish language  (Iyazdi), is a religious group in the Middle East, most of them are living near Mosul in Iraq, and the other smaller groups are living in Turkey, Syria, Iran, Georgia and Armenia.
Ethnically they belong to the Kurdish origin with Indo-European roots, although they are affected by their surroundings mosaic formed by the cultures of Arab Assyrian and Syrian so that their traditional clothes for men are close to the outfit in the Arab section living near  Mosul, like in Sinjar  they wear  long White dress with headdress (White or White and Red ) in the other areas they dressed in traditional Kurdish outfit usually, but nowadays the Yezidis Like the rest of people wearing what is worn by most of the people of trendy clothes especially youth community.
Their mother  language is Kurdish, but they speak Arabic as well, especially Yezidis from Ba’shiqah near Mosul, all their prayers, rituals and religious books are all in the Kurdish language, or Mrgah Al-Shaykhan where the  home of their princes, which was named in the history books as (Marg Al- Mosul) and their Qibla is Lalish temple, where the holy shrine of (l Sheikh Adi) in northern Iraq, and Ameer Tahseen Bek  is considered as one of the most important religious people in the  Yezidi religion  in Iraq and the world.
Distribution and population:
Estimated population is about 250,000 in the world. 70,000 Yazidis living in Iraq and 30 000 others living in Syria and no more than 500 people in Turkey, where the number was more than 25 000 people in the early eighties, but most of them emigrated to Europe, and they are minorities in Armenia and Georgia where their origins are from Turkey.
There are also a small minority of the Yezidis in Iran.
Their homeland:
Yezidis were called in some historical periods as Dasnieh then after Sheikh Adi Alhkari they were known as Suhbatiah, Adawiya and Hakkari, their most famous places as mentioned in the book Sharafnameh are Ibn Umar (Bottan) Island, Mosul, Dohuk, Diyarbakir, Halab, Urfa and Khoi in Iran the princes of Denbli, but this spread has been reduced by the genocide happened by the Ottoman Empire, and the biggest gatherings are currently in:
Iraq: in the province of Nineweh / Mosul: – Sheikhan, Bashiqa, Bahzany, Shingar (Sinjar), Zammar and Alqosh
In the province of Dohuk: – Sharia (Smeal), Khank and Derabon region.
Syria: Qamishli and Afrin area and Jrahia and its affiliates.
Turkey: Mardin, Siirt, Urfa, Kars, Agri and Ardohan near the Armenian border
In Armenia: Alakz area and the villages of Ararat Mountain and in the capital Yerevan.
In Georgia: in the capital Tbilisi.
Others: Germany, Austria, United States of America and other countries.

The name Yezidi religion has come from the word Azday which means (Who created me) or (Allah).
Because the Yazidi religion is not presented with a written history that is why it was hard on many writers and historians, Arabs and foreigners to put a name for it but this was the most acceptable theory.
Symbols and believes:
That Allah is for human beings and the king Peacock is the king of Angels
Peacock King:
This governs the universe with seven angels
King symbolized by a peacock
The King is in the form of a peacock made of copper palm-size.

Water, fire, earth and air are considered as holly symbols in the Yezidi religion and represent an independent life by itself.
The most prominent religious rites:
Is (supplication), in three periods with the sunrise, sunset and special events , Yezidis people pray for goodness and peace for all mankind in general and then to themselves. Yazidi as any religion has its ideology and its behavior in  performing the prayer (supplication) for the creator of the universe Allah is called in their old Aryan language as (Khody) or (Iyazdan).
They have number of prayers and texts each for a specific time of the day (sunrise with dawn, noon and then sunset), and others are concerned with certain religious occasions, like celebrations. There are also prayers for illness, and the other associated with the occurrence of floods and disasters, including those concerned with the phenomenon of eclipse of the sun and the lunar eclipse.
Holy books are:
-Algeloh by Sheikh Hassan Shams al-Din.
-Black book.
The most prominent personalities:
Sheikh Adi
Holy places:
Valley Lalish in Iraq,where most of the Yezidi people annually pilgrimage and spend seven days there. Each Yezidi individual has to pilgrimage at least once during his lifetime and baptizing with the water of  Kanya Spi  (the white eye)
Hijj: Pilgrimage to the Valley of Lalish.
Praying: Prayers with an orientation toward the sun.
Fasting:Yezidis fast more than once a year, also it is optional to each individual to fast through the year as much as he wants, but there is a general fasting called (Izzy) fasting, it means fasting for (Allah), it lasts for three consecutive days, it happens mostly in December because Yezidis follow the ancient Eastern Gregorian Calendar.  In these three days of fasting the Yezidi has to leave all kinds of desires and pleasures of the world and at the fourth day after fasting, it will be the Eid or the celebration which is called (rozet Izzy).
Direction: The direction for Yezidis is the sun as the greatest creation by Allah, where they pray toward the sun, in form of supplication. Who pray must wash first and then stands barefoot with humility with his hands toward the sky. This must be repeated three times a day at sunrise, sunset and night before going to sleep. Each time special hymns and prayers are to be read out and they are very similar to the old poetry.
Reincarnation: As a way to atone for sins.
Baptism:  Baptizing the new born baby by the water of Kanya.
Uniformity: One of the basic fundamentals in Yezidi religion philosophy is the uniformity, so they do not believe in the existence of evil spirits, goblins, and demons and devils because they believe that the saying that there are other forces that controls humans, is just a fake excuse made by humans as an explanation for their bad actions. So they believe that the human is responsible for what he does and not the evil spirits. And that Allah is all good, but he also controls the evil that comes as results for the actions of human beings, so the conflict between good and evil is essentially a conflict between the self and the mind.

The story of creation is similar a little to that one in Islam, but in some points it was different especially with part of Azrael, the Yezidis call it one of the best Unitarians to Allah, who refused to prostrate to Adam, because he was considering prostration is exclusive to the creator only. So as the story tells that Allah raised Azrael to be the king of all Angels.
The celebration is always on the first Wednesday in April each year. 

Yezidi religion is exited here in Iraq since thousand years and despite they suffered from genocide in different periods of time, but they were strong enough to handle all that and keep living in the same original areas, even now they are still suffering from terrorist attacks.



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